According to Chad P. Bown (Senior Fellow at the Peterson Institute for International Economics), it is unlikely that a renegotiated NAFTA, which would restore barriers to trade, will help workers who have lost their jobs, regardless of their cause, to use new employment opportunities.”  NAFTA has three primary dispute resolution mechanisms. Chapter 20 is the settlement mechanism for countries. It is often considered the least controversial of the three mechanisms, and has been maintained in its original form from NAFTA to the USMCA. In such cases, complaints filed by USMCA Member States against the duration of the contract would be violated.  In Chapter 19, the justifications for anti-dumping or countervailing duties are managed. Without Chapter 19, the avenue of recourse for the management of these policies would be through the national legal system. Chapter 19 provides that an USMCA body hears the case and acts as an international commercial tribunal to arbitrate the dispute.  The Trump administration has attempted to remove Chapter 19 of the new USMCA text, which until now existed in the agreement. According to the International Organization for Migration, the number of migrant deaths worldwide has increased, with 5,604 deaths in 2016.  An increase in the number of undocumented farm workers in California could be due to the first adoption of NAFTA.  On December 10, 2019, the three countries reached a revised USMCA agreement.
On January 29, 2020, Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Intergovernmental Affairs Chrystia Freeland introduced the USMCA C-4 Transposition Act in the House of Commons and passed the first reading without a registered vote. On February 6, the bill passed second reading in the House of Commons by 275 votes to 28, with the Bloc Québécois voting against and all other parties voting in its favour, and it was referred to the Standing Committee on International Trade.    On 27 February 2020, the committee voted to send the bill to Parliament for third reading, without amendments. NAFTA is a free trade and investment agreement that provides investors with a unique set of guarantees to stimulate foreign direct investment and the relocation of plants in the hemisphere, particularly from the United States to Canada and Mexico. In addition, no safeguard measures were at the heart of the agreement on maintaining labour or environmental standards. As a result, NAFTA reversed the conditions of economic competition for the benefit of investors and against workers and the environment, leading to a hemispheric “race to the bottom” on wages and environmental quality. The idea of a trade agreement actually goes back to the administration of Ronald Reagan. During his tenure as president, Reagan made an election campaign promise to open up trade in North America by signing the Trade and Tariff Act in 1984, which gave the president more negotiations on trade deals without problems. Four years later, Reagan and the Canadian Prime Minister signed the Canada-Americans. Free trade agreement.
Globalization has put pressure on the wages of less educated workers for three main reasons. First, the steady growth of U.S. trade deficits over the past two decades has eliminated millions of manufacturing and employment opportunities in that country. Most IDPs find jobs in other sectors where wages are much lower, resulting in lower average wages for all of the United States.