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The classical perspective focuses on direct inputs to efficiency, while the behavioral perspective examines indirect inputs too. Compare and contrast the central concepts that define a classical organizational-theory approach and a behavioral perspective. The classical perspective of management, which emerged from the Industrial Revolution, focuses on improving the efficiency, productivity, and output of employees, as well as the business as a whole.
However, it generally does not focus on human or behavioral attributes or variances among employees, such as how job satisfaction improves employee efficiency. Scientific management theory, which was first introduced by Frederick Winslow Taylor, focused on production efficiency and productivity of employees. By managing production efficiency as a science, Taylor thought that worker productivity could be completely controlled. He used the scientific method of measurement to create guidelines for the training and management of employees.
This quantitative, efficiency-based approach is representative of the classical perspective. Classical Perspective of Management : The classical perspective of management focused on improving worker productivity. Another leader in the classical perspective of management, Max Weber, created the bureaucracy theory of management, which focuses on the theme of rationalization, rules, and expertise for an organization as a whole. Henri Fayol, another leader in classical management theory, also focused on the efficiency of workers, but he looked at it from a managerial perspective—i.
Fayol created six functions of management, which are now taught as the following four essential functions of management: planning, organizing, leading, and controlling. The classical perspective is often criticized for ignoring human desires and needs in the workplace and typically does not take into consideration human error in work performance. The classical perspective has strong influences on modern operations and process improvement, which uses quantitative metrics to determine how effectively a process is running.
The Hawthorne studies were an important start to the behavioral perspective of management. These were a series of research studies conducted with the workers at the Hawthorne plant of the Western Electric Company. The Hawthorne studies found that workers were more strongly motivated by psychosocial factors than by economic or financial incentives. Around this same time, Abraham Maslow created his hierarchy-of-needs theory, which showed that workers were motivated through a series of lower-level to higher-level needs.
In Theory X, managers assume employees are inherently lazy and, therefore, micromanage. In Theory Y, managers are more laissez-faire and allow employees more freedom in their work. Generally, the behavioral perspective is much more concerned with employee well-being and encourages management approaches that consider the employee as a motivated worker who wants to work and wants to produce quality work.
This theory therefore encourages a management approach that is less focused on micromanaging and is more focused on building relationships with employees in order to help them achieve their workplace goals and work as effectively and efficiently as possible. Scientific management, or Taylorism, is a management theory that analyzes work flows to improve economic efficiency, especially labor productivity.
This management theory, developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor, was popular in the s and s in manufacturing industries. Scientific management was best known from to , but in the s, competing management theories and methods emerged, rendering scientific management largely obsolete by the s. However, many of the themes of scientific management are still seen in industrial engineering and management today.
Frederick Winslow Taylor : Frederick Winslow Taylor is considered the creator of scientific management. Important components of scientific management include analysis, synthesis, logic, rationality, empiricism, work ethic, efficiency, elimination of waste, and standardized best practices. All of these components focus on the efficiency of the worker and not on any specific behavioral qualities or variations among workers.
A ificant part of Taylorism was time studies. Taylor was concerned with reducing process time and worked with factory managers on scientific time studies. At its most basic level, time studies involve breaking down each job into component parts, timing each element, and rearranging the parts into the most efficient method of working. By counting and calculating, Taylor sought to transform management into a set of calculated and written techniques. While Taylor was conducting his time studies, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth were completing their own work in motion studies to further scientific management.
The films helped to create a visual record of how work was completed, and emphasized areas for improvement. Secondly, the films also served the purpose of training workers about the best way to perform their work. This method allowed the Gilbreths to build on the best elements of the work flows and create a standardized best practice.
Time and motion studies are used together to achieve rational and reasonable and find the best practice for implementing new work methods. Taylor was focused on reducing process time, while the Gilbreths tried to make the overall process more efficient by reducing the motions involved. Even though scientific management was considered background in the s, it continues to make ificant contributions to management theory today. With the advancement of statistical methods used in scientific management, quality assurance and quality control began in the s and s. During the s and s, scientific management evolved into operations management, operations research, and management cybernetics.
One could validly argue that Taylorism sent the groundwork for these large and influential fields we practice today. Max Weber was a German sociologist, political economist, and administrative scholar who contributed to the study of bureaucracy and administrative literature during the late s and early s.
As Weber understood it, particularly during the Industrial Revolution of the late nineteenth century, society was being driven by the passage of rational ideas into culture, which, in turn, transformed society into an increasingly bureaucratic entity. Bureaucracy is a complex means of managing life in social institutions that includes rules and regulations, patterns, and procedures that are deed to simplify the functioning of complex organizations. An example of bureaucracy would be the forms used to pay income taxes. Specific information and procedures are required to fill them out.
Included in those forms, however, are countless rules and laws that dictate what can and cannot be included. Bureaucracy simplifies the process of paying taxes by putting the process into a formulaic structure, but simultaneously complicates the process by adding rules and regulations. In his writings, Weber focused on the idea of a bureaucracy, which differs from a traditional managerial organization because workers are judged by impersonal, rule-based activity and promotion is based on merit and performance rather than on immeasurable qualities.
Weberian bureaucracy is also characterized by hierarchical organization, delineated lines of authority in a fixed area of activity, action taken on the basis of and recorded in written rules, and bureaucratic officials requiring expert training. In a bureaucracy, career advancement depends on technical qualifications judged by an organization, not individuals. Of course, due to the advent of the behavior-management movement in the s, this bleak situation did not come to pass.
Fayol was a classical management theorist, widely regarded as the father of modern operational-management theory. His ideas are a fundamental part of modern management concepts. Fayol is often compared to Frederick Winslow Taylor, who developed scientific management. However, Fayol differed from Taylor in his focus and developed his ideas independently. Taylor was concerned with task time and improving worker efficiency, while Fayol was concerned with management and the human and behavioral factors in management.
In contrast, Fayol emphasized a more top-down perspective that was focused on educating management on improving processes first and then moving to workers. Fayol believed that by focusing on managerial practices organizations could minimize misunderstandings and increase efficiency. His writings guided managers on how to accomplish their managerial duties and on the practices in which they should engage. As a result of his concern for workers, Fayol was considered one of the early fathers of the human relations movement. Henri Fayol : Henri Fayol pioneered definitions of control for management science.
Fayol developed 14 principles of management in order to help managers conduct their affairs more effectively. Today, these principles are still used but are often interpreted differently. The fourteen principles are as follows:. Fayol is also famous for his five elements of management, which outline the key responsibilities of good managers:.
The classical approach to management is often criticized for viewing a worker as a mere tool to improve efficiency. Assess the comprehensive arguments underlining the flaws in utilizing classical organizational theory perspectives, primarily Taylorism and the scientific method. Generally the classical view is associated with Taylorism and scientific management, which are largely criticized for viewing the worker as more of a gear in the machine than an individual. Under Taylorism the work effort of workers increased in intensity, but eventually workers became dissatisfied with the work environment and became angry, which affected their overall work ethic.
This dissatisfaction undoes the value captured via increased efficiency. That outcome neutralized most or all of the benefit of any productivity gains that Taylorism had achieved. The net benefit to owners and management ended up being small or negative. It would take new efforts, borrowing some ideas from Taylorism but mixing them with others, to produce more successful formulas. Factory workers : Taylorism and classical management styles negatively affected the morale of workers, which created a negative relationship between workers and managers.
Scientific management also led to other pressures tending toward worker unhappiness. Offshoring and automation are two such pressures that have led to the erosion of employment. Both were made possible by the deskilling of jobs, which arose because of the knowledge transfer that scientific management achieved, whereby knowledge was transferred to cheaper workers, as well as from workers into tools.
To summarize, the underlying weakness of the classical view of management is the omission of the fact that employees are people first and resources second. This criticism opened doors for theorists such as George Elton Mayo and Abraham Maslow, who emphasized the human and behavioral aspects of management. After all, what value is wealth if the individual loses the sense of self-worth and happiness required to enjoy it?
The behavioral approach to management took an entirely different approach and focused on managing morale, leadership, and other behavioral factors to encourage productivity rather than solely managing the time and efficiency of workers. Another disadvantage of the classical perspective arises from the growing size and complexity of the modern organization. Using metrics to examine specific employee behavior may be feasible in a smaller organization pursuing homoegeneous tasks, but it becomes more difficult when trying to accomplish this at an organization that has hundreds of employees pursuing various complex functions.
In this situation, it may be more beneficial to use tactics that are less focused on the individual employee and more on improving overall productivity. This will involve less micromanaging and more trusting employees to do the right thing while at the workplace. The onus of enabling efficiency, therefore, shifts from workers to managers.
It generally does not focus on human or behavioral attributes or variation among employees. The classical perspective of management is often criticized for ignoring human desires and needs in the workplace and does not take into consideration human error in work performance.
The classical perspective has strong influences on modern operations and process improvement. Key Terms micromanage : To rely on extreme supervision and close monitoring of employee work. Key Takeaways Key Points Scientific management, or Taylorism, is a management theory that analyzes work flows to improve economic efficiency, especially labor productivity.
This management theory, developed by Frederick Winslow Taylor, was dominant in manufacturing industries in the s and s. Taylor and the Gilbreths introduced methods of measuring worker productivity, including time studies and motion studies, which are still used today in operations and management. Key Terms Motion Study : Created by Frank and Lillian Gilbreth, these analyzed work motions by filming workers and emphasized areas for efficiency improvement by reducing motion. Taylorism : Scientific management; an early 20th-century theory of management that analyzed workflows in order to improve efficiency.
Time studies : Created by Frederick Winslow Taylor, these break down each job into component parts and time each part to determine the most efficient method of working. Scientific Management : An early 20th-century theory that analyzed workflows in order to improve efficiency. Learning Objectives Define bureaucratic organization, as theorized by the German sociologist Max Weber.
He wrote about the importance of bureaucracy in society. Weberian bureaucracy is characterized by hierarchical organization, action taken on the basis of and recorded in written rules, and bureaucratic officials requiring expert training.
Career advancement depends on technical qualifications judged by an organization, not individuals. As Weber understood it, society was being driven by the passage of rational ideas into culture, which, in turn, transformed society into an increasingly bureaucratic entity. Key Terms bureaucracy : A complex means of managing life in social institutions that includes rules and regulations, patterns, and procedures that are deed to simplify the functioning of complex organizations.
Key Takeaways Key Points Fayol took a top-down approach to management by focusing on managerial practices to increase efficiency in organizations. His writing provided guidance to managers on how to accomplish their managerial duties and on the practices in which they should engage. Fayol stressed the importance and the practice of forecasting and planning in order to train management and improve workplace productivity.
Fayol is also famous for putting forward 14 principles of management and the five elements that constitute managerial responsibilities. Key Terms top-down : Of or relating to a perspective that progresses from a single, large basic unit to multiple, smaller subunits. Fayolism : An approach that focused on managerial practices that could minimize misunderstandings and increase efficiency in organizations. Flaws in the Classical Perspectives The classical approach to management is often criticized for viewing a worker as a mere tool to improve efficiency.
Learning Objectives Assess the comprehensive arguments underlining the flaws in utilizing classical organizational theory perspectives, primarily Taylorism and the scientific method. Key Takeaways Key Points Under Taylorism, the work effort of workers increased in intensity, but eventually workers became dissatisfied with the work environment and became angry, decreasing overall work ethic and productivity.
The criticisms of classical management theory opened doors for theorists such as George Elton Mayo and Abraham Maslow, who emphasized the human and behavioral aspects of management. The scientific management approach is also lacking when applied to larger, more operationally complex organizations.
Managerial efficacy and the empowerment of employees are more important to overall productivity when tasks are not simple and homogeneous.Frederick bttm seekn top
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